Inguinal hernias and hydroceles are conditions that affect the groin area, commonly seen in infants and adults. An inguinal hernia occurs when part of the intestine protrudes through a weak spot in the abdominal muscles, creating a bulge in the groin or scrotum. A hydrocele is a fluid-filled sac surrounding a testicle, leading to swelling in the scrotum. Both conditions may require medical attention to prevent complications.

Inguinal hernias have been documented since ancient times. Hippocrates and Celsus were among the first to describe it. The first recorded surgery for inguinal hernia is attributed to the Indian surgeon Sushruta, who lived around 600 B.C. Hydrocele has similarly ancient roots, with descriptions found in early medical texts from several cultures. The knowledge about these conditions has significantly evolved, with advances in surgical techniques and understanding of anatomical complications.


Inguinal Hernia

Congenital Hernia: Present at birth due to the internal ring not closing properly.

Weak Abdominal Wall: Congenital weakness or acquired weakness in the abdominal wall.

Increased Abdominal Pressure: Activities or conditions that increase pressure in the abdomen, such as heavy lifting, chronic coughing, obesity, or straining during bowel movements.

Premature Birth: Infants born prematurely are at higher risk due to incomplete development of the abdominal wall.


Congenital Hydrocele: Present at birth due to the failure of the processus vaginalis to close properly, allowing fluid to accumulate around the testicle.

Acquired Hydrocele: Develops later in life due to injury, infection, inflammation, or tumors in the scrotum or testicles.

Risk Factors

Inguinal Hernia

  • Male Gender: More common in males than females.
  • Family History: Higher risk if there is a family history of hernias.
  • Certain Medical Conditions: Conditions such as cystic fibrosis, which increases abdominal pressure.
  • Age: More common in premature infants


  • Infancy: Common in newborns, particularly premature infants.
  • Cryptorchidism: Can occur in association with undescended testicles.
  • Chronic Conditions: Conditions that cause increased fluid production or decreased absorption.


Inguinal Hernia

Incarceration: The herniated tissue becomes trapped and cannot be pushed back into the abdomen, causing pain and potential bowel obstruction.

Strangulation: The blood supply to the herniated tissue is cut off, leading to tissue death and potentially life-threatening complications.


Infection: Increased risk of infection in the scrotum.

Discomfort: Chronic discomfort due to the size of the swelling.

Underlying Conditions: May indicate underlying issues such as infections or tumors.


While not all cases of inguinal hernias and hydroceles can be prevented, certain measures can reduce the risk:

Inguinal Hernia

  • Maintain a Healthy Weight: Avoid obesity to reduce abdominal pressure.
  • Avoid Heavy Lifting: Use proper techniques and avoid lifting heavy objects when possible.
  • Manage Chronic Conditions: Treat chronic coughs and constipation promptly to avoid straining.


  • Protect Against Injury: Use protective gear during sports or activities that risk scrotal injury.
  • Good Hygiene: Maintain good hygiene to prevent infections.


When to see a doctor